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Ptah: god of craftsmanship

One of Egypt’s oldest gods, Ptah was known as the Lord of Memphis, the city that was the first capital of ancient Egypt. One of his most ancient aspects is his role as the god of craftsmanship. This role contributed to his importance since craftsmen were central to aiding the king in constructing his temples, cities, and eventually his final resting place.

Ptah was also known as a creator god, an aspect that likely grew out of his association with craftsmen, who rely greatly on their creative abilities for their livelihood. According to the Memphite creation story, Ptah is said to have created the world by speaking it into existence. As the patron deity of craftsmen, Ptah was also known as “sculptor of the earth,” and in another version of Ptah’s creation mythology he was said to have formed humanity on his potter’s wheel.

Unlike other deities, Ptah was almost exclusively represented in the same form as a standing mummiform human figure wearing a blue skullcap holding a was scepter topped by ankh, and djed symbols. He is often shown standing inside an open shrine.